Installing an app
Apps can be installed from the
App Store menu item. Clicking on an app will display
information about the app.
Install button will show an install dialog:
Location field is the subdomain into which the app will be installed. Use the drop down
selector on the right to choose the domain into which the app will by installed.
If the subdomain field is empty, the app will be installed in the bare/naked domain (i.e
smartserver.space in the picture above).
Location field can be multi-level
Location field can be any level deep. For example, you can specify location as
blog.dev to make the app available at
Configuring an app
Clicking on the gear button will open the app's configure view.
The configure view can be used for:
- Relocating an app to another subdomain
- Make the app available from another domain
- Specify the groups that can access the app
- Change the maximum amount of memory that the app can use
- Specify a
robots.txtto control indexing by search engines (Google, Bing, DDG)
- Setting up redirections
No data loss
Re-configuring an app is a non-destructive action. Existing app data will be retained.
Moving an app to another domain
Changing the location field in the
Location section of the app's configure UI will move the app to
another domain or subdomain:
No data loss
Moving an app to a new location is a non-destructive action. Existing app data will be migrated to the new domain.
Redirections can be setup from the
Location section in the app's configure UI:
In the above example, anyone visiting
chat3.smartserver.io will be automatically
redirected to the main domain
chat.cloudron.ml (using HTTP 302).
The redirection feature preserves any URI components like subpaths in the original request.
Labels and Tags
Label is the text that is displayed for the app on the dashboard below the icon.
Tags are a
mechanism to tag apps with labels. For example, you can mark specific apps with the customer name
and filter apps by customer name.
The label and tag of an app can be changed in the
Display section of the app's configure UI:
Increasing the memory limit of an app
All apps are run with a memory limit to ensure that no app can bring down the whole Cloudron. The default memory limit of an app is set by the app author at packaging time. This limit is usually the minimum amount of memory required for the app. Cloudron admins are expected to tweak the memory limit of an app based on their usage.
When an app runs out of memory, Cloudron automatically restarts it and sends an OOM email notification to Cloudron admins.
The memory limit can be set by adjusting the slider in the
of the app's configure view.
Memory limit includes swap
The memory limit specified above is a combination of RAM and swap space to be allocated for the app. Cloudron allocates 50% of this value as RAM and 50% as swap.
Restricting app access to specific users
Many apps in Cloudron are integrated with Cloudron's user management. For such apps, one or more groups or users can be assigned to an app to restrict login. For apps not integrated with Cloudron user management, see the section on controlling the visibility of app icon in dashboard.
Note that Cloudron only handles authentication. Assigning roles to users is
done within the application itself. For example, changing a user to become a
author inside WordPress has to be done within WordPress.
Allow all users from this Cloudron- Any user in the Cloudron can access the app.
Only allow the following users and groups- Only the users and groups can access the app.
Visibility of app icon in dashboard
The Dashboard of a Cloudron user displays the apps that the user can access. For apps that use Cloudron Single Sign-on, the dashboard only displays an app if the user has access to it.
For apps configured to not use the Cloudron Single Sign-on (for example, some public app like a
Forum or Chat), the apps are displayed (by default) on the dashboard of all users. Admins
can control if an app appears in a user's dashboard using the
Dashboard Visibility section
in the app's configure UI.
Mail FROM address
For apps that can send and/or receive email, Cloudron automatically assigns an address of the
<location>.app. To change this name, go to the
Mailbox is not automatically created
The app is simply configured to send mails with the above name. If you want to receive email with the address, be sure to create a mailbox or assign it as an alias for an existing mailbox. If a mailbox with the name does not exist, any replies to the email will bounce.
Indexing by search engines (robots.txt)
Robots.txt file is a file served from the root of a website to indicate which parts must be indexed by a search
engine. The file follows the Robots Exclusion Standard.
Google has an excellent document about the semantics.
The robots.txt contents of an app can be set in the
Security section of the app's configure UI.
By default, Cloudron does not setup a robots.txt for apps. When unset, the app is free to provide it's own robots.txt.
In addition, the Cloudron admin page has a hardcoded robots.txt that disables indexing:
User-agent: * Disallow: /
The CSP HTTP header instructs the browser to only load scripts, media, images and other resources only from specific sites. Some apps set these headers to be overly restrictive and provide no way to customize them. For such apps, you can override the CSP headers set by the app.
For example, to embed Mattermost in another site, you can set the following CSP policy for Mattermost:
Cloudron provides a web terminal that gives access to the app's file system. The web terminal can be used to:
- Introspect and modify the app's files
- Access and modify the app's database (mysql, postgres, mongodb, redis)
- Modify the app's data directory
- Upload files to the /tmp directory. You can then work on this file from the terminal.
- Download files and directories (as tar.gz) from the app.
- Install plugins
- Repair an app if a plugin installation failed or database needs some modification
Note that Cloudron runs apps as containers with a read-only file system. Only
/run (dynamic data),
/app/data (backup data) and
/tmp (temporary files) are writable at runtime.
The web terminal can be accessed from the
Debug section of the app's configure UI.
Clicking the icon will pop up a new window. The terminal is essentially a shell into the app's file system.
Certain apps like WordPress, LAMP, Surfer support access to their data via SFTP. Files can be viewed
and uploaded using any SFTP client. The FTP connection information is displayed in the information
Access Control section of the app's configure UI.
A SFTP client like FileZilla can be used to connect as follows:
Password- Cloudron password
SFTP service runs at port 222. The server firewall already has this port open. However, you will have to whitelist this port in the Cloud firewall (e.g EC2 Security Group or DigitalOcean Firewall).
To view the logs of an app, click the logs button on the app grid:
This will open up a popup dialog that display the logs:
Uninstall an app
An app can be uninstalled clicking the
Uninstall button in the app's configure UI.
Uninstalling an app immediately removes all data associated with the app from the Cloudron.
Backups are not removed
App backups are not removed when it is uninstalled and are only cleaned up based on the backup policy. Apps can always be re-instated from their backups using the CLI tool.
When doing website development, it is useful to have production and staging environments. Cloudron's backup and clone features can be used to create a workflow as follows:
- Install the app in
staging.example.com. Do edits and development as desired.
- Once ready, make a 'snapshot' of the app by making an app backup
- Use the clone UI to install the app
The same mechanism above can be used bring latest production data to staging.
The Graphs view shows an overview of the disk and memory usage on your Cloudron.
Disk Usage graph shows you how much disk space you have left. Note that the Cloudron will
send the Cloudron admins an email notification when the disk is ~90% full.
Apps Memory graph shows the memory consumed by each installed app. You can click on each segment
on the graph to see the memory consumption over time in the chart below it.
System Memory graph shows the overall memory consumption on the entire Cloudron. If you see
the Free memory < 50MB frequently, you should consider upgrading to a Cloudron with more memory.
Installing Docker images or other non-Cloudron apps
Cloudron's approach to self-hosting means that it takes complete ownership of the server and only
tracks changes that are made via the web interface. For this reason, Cloudron does not support
installing apps via Docker or
snap. Any external changes made to the server (i.e other
than via the Cloudron web interface or API) may be lost across updates and at worst, might confuse
the Cloudron update mechanism putting your server at risk.
The best way to workaround this is to package the apps as Cloudron apps. Apps that have a Dockerfile can be trivially packaged for the Cloudron.